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These deposits overlie extensively weathered glacial drift formed during the next-to-last alpine glaciation of the Cascade Range.The volcanic deposits were formed during at least four episodes, separated by intervals during which very weak soils developed.The sequence of explosive eruptions that formed set J apparently ended the Swift Creek eruptive period sometime before 8,000 yr ago, and was followed by a quiet period of at least 4,000 yr.
Fine-grained, air-laid volcanic detritus was deposited during some dormant intervals, but these deposits are not known to have originated directly from eruptions; they might be material reworked from the flanks of the volcano.
East of the volcano, layer Bi overlies a pyroclastic-flow deposit of pyroxene andesite, and directly underlies thin olivine basalt lava flows which probably are correlative with the uppermost unit in the Castle Creek valley.
The Dogs Head dacite dome was extruded before those thin olivine basalt flows, probably during the Castle Creek eruptive period.
Deposition of these units was followed by an interval during which a soil began to develop on the tephra.
The next eruption of the period produced the most voluminous and widespread tephra deposit of the last 4,000 yr; it is one of the largest, if not the largest, in the history of the volcano, and has an estimated volume of at least 3 km.